Heads of Laboratories
Torsten N. Wiesel Professor
Lulu and Anthony Wang Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior
Genes, the environment, and experience interact to shape an animal’s behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans, a worm with just 302 neurons, shows considerable sophistication in its behaviors, and its defined neuronal wiring and genetic accessibility make it an ideal subject in which to study these interactions. Using C. elegans as a model, Bargmann’s laboratory characterizes genes and neural pathways that allow the nervous system to generate flexible behaviors.
How do genes and the environment interact to generate a variety of behaviors? How are behavioral decisions modified by context and experience? The Bargmann lab is studying the relationships between genes, experience, and behavior in the nematode C. elegans, whose nervous system consists of only 302 neurons with reproducible functions, morphologies, and synaptic connections. Despite this simplicity, many of the genes and signaling mechanisms used in the nematode nervous system are similar to those of mammals. The ability to manipulate the activity of individual genes and neurons in C. elegans makes it possible to determine how neural circuits develop and function.
The animal’s most complex behaviors occur in response to smell, and these are at the heart of the lab’s research. C. elegans can sense hundreds of different odors, discriminate among them, and generate reactions that are appropriate to the odor cue. These behaviors can be traced from molecules, to neurons, to circuits, to behavioral decisions. In C. elegans, as in other animals, odors are detected by G protein coupled odorant receptors on specialized sensory neurons. The odors that activate one sensory neuron regulate a behavioral output such as attraction or avoidance. The lab studies the pathways from sensory input to behavioral output by quantitative analysis of behavior under well-defined conditions, genetic manipulation of animals or individual neuronal cells, and calcium imaging from neurons in living animals.
The lab also asks how a fixed nervous system generates flexible behaviors. For example, C. elegans is capable of learning the odors of different bacteria and avoiding those that previously made it ill. These learned olfactory behaviors are associated with neuromodulatory signals that lead to behavioral remodeling. Other neuromodulators shape spontaneous behaviors in reversible patterns over minutes or hours. This reversible rewiring occurs without apparent changes to the fixed anatomy of the nervous system, and uses conserved molecules like dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin, which are implicated in human motivational and emotional states. The lab is currently studying how neuromodulatory systems affect the flow of information between neurons across different timescales.
B.S. in biochemistry, 1981
University of Georgia
Ph.D. in cancer biology, 1987
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Whitehead Institute
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1987–1991
Assistant Professor, 1991–1996
Associate Professor, 1996–1998
University of California, San Francisco
Co-director, Shelby White and Leon Levy Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior, 2005–2016
The Rockefeller University
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Kemali International Prize for Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 2004
Richard Lounsbery Award in Biology and Medicine, 2009
Perl-UNC Neuroscience Prize, 2010
Dart/NYU Biotechnology Achievement Award, 2012
Kavli Prize in Neuroscience, 2012
Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, 2013
Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Sciences, 2014
Edward M. Scolnick Prize in Neuroscience, 2016
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Medicine
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Philosophical Society
Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
Associate Member, European Molecular Biology Organization
Greene, J.S. et al. Balancing selection shapes density-dependent foraging behaviour. Nature 539, 254–258 (2016).
Jin, X. et al. Distinct circuits for the formation and retrieval of an imprinted olfactory memory. Cell 164, 632–643 (2016).
Gordus, A. et al. Feedback from network states generates variability in a probabilistic olfactory circuit. Cell 161, 215–227 (2015).
Flavell, S.W. et al. Serotonin and the neuropeptide PDF initiate and extend opposing behavioral states in C. elegans. Cell 154, 1023–1035 (2013).
Garrison, J. et al. Oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides have an ancient role in reproductive behaviors. Science 338, 540–543 (2012).